Laws Of Reflection



SI: incident ray, IR: reflected ray, i: angle of incidence, i’: angle of reflection




Refractive Index



n: refractive index of the medium, v: speed of light in a medium, c: speed of light in vacuum (m/s)



Law Of Refraction



n1: refractive index of the medium 1, n2: refractive index of medium 2, i: angle of incidence, r: angle of refraction, n21: absolute index of refraction








Total Reflection Phenomenon



There is no refracted ray if




Prism



A: apex angle, D: deviation angle, i1: angle of incidence, i2: angle of emergent ray







Condition to have refractive ray





When angle of incidence is minimum






Thin Lens



f: focal length (converging len f>0; diverging len f<0), d: object distance from lens center, d’: image distance from lens center





Magnification Factor



hI ; image height, ho: object height



Power Of The Lens



n: refractive index of the lens material, R1: radius of curvature of the lens surface closest to the light source, R2: radius of curvature of the lens surface farthest from the light source