Coulomb's Law

q: size of charges(c), ε: relative permittivity (in vaccum ε=1), r: distance between the charges(m)

Electric Fields

E: electric field strength (N/C)

The Principle Of Superposition For electric Fields

In case of 2 electric fields

Work Of Electric Force

Electric Potential Difference

Relation Between E And U


C: capacitance (F), Q: total electric charge(c), U: electric potential (V)


A: are of each electrode plate (m2), d: distance between the electrodes (m), ε: relative permittivity (F/m)

Capacitances In Series

Capacitances In Parallel

Electric Field Energy

Energy Of A Capacitor

V: A.d: volume between two electrode plates