The First Law Of Thermodynamics

ΔU: change in internal energy, W: work done by the system, Q: heat added into or out of the system

Application Of First Law To Ideal Gas Laws

Volume is constant

Pressure is constant, W’: work created by gas

Temperature is constant

The Second Law Of Thermodynamics

The efficiency of a cyclic heat engine

W’: work carried out per cycle(J), Q1: heat absorbed per cycle from the higher temperature(J), Q2’: heat rejected per cycle to the lower temperature(J)

Maximum thermal efficiency

T1,T2: higher and lower temperatures