The First Law Of Thermodynamics



ΔU: change in internal energy, W: work done by the system, Q: heat added into or out of the system



Application Of First Law To Ideal Gas Laws



Volume is constant





Pressure is constant, W’: work created by gas







Temperature is constant





The Second Law Of Thermodynamics



The efficiency of a cyclic heat engine


W’: work carried out per cycle(J), Q1: heat absorbed per cycle from the higher temperature(J), Q2’: heat rejected per cycle to the lower temperature(J)





Maximum thermal efficiency


T1,T2: higher and lower temperatures