m: mass of a volume V


F: force applied on area of A

Pressure Of Liquids

d: specific gravity(N/m3), po: air pressure at the free surface (N/m2), p: pressure created by the weight of liquid above, pB: total pressure at the depth h

Pascal's Principle

PS: pressure on the surface



A1, A2: area of small and large cylinders; F1, F2: applied and upward forces

Archimede's Principle

d: specific gravity of liquid (N/m3), V: volume of object, Fb: buoyant force

Flow Rate

A: cross sectional area (m2), v: flow velocity (m/s), Q: flow rate (m3/s)