Density



m: mass of a volume V



Pressure



F: force applied on area of A



Pressure Of Liquids



d: specific gravity(N/m3), po: air pressure at the free surface (N/m2), p: pressure created by the weight of liquid above, pB: total pressure at the depth h






Pascal's Principle



PS: pressure on the surface

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Application



A1, A2: area of small and large cylinders; F1, F2: applied and upward forces




Archimede's Principle



d: specific gravity of liquid (N/m3), V: volume of object, Fb: buoyant force




Flow Rate



A: cross sectional area (m2), v: flow velocity (m/s), Q: flow rate (m3/s)