Inductive effect

The effect on electron density in one portion of a molecule due to electron-withdrawing or electron-donating groups elsewhere in the molecule A covalent single bond is made up of two paired electrons. But in cases when the atoms forming the bond differ in electronegativity (electronegative atoms love electrons) it results in a ‘polarized’ bond (which means the bonded electrons are shifted towards the more electronegative atom). So a C-N bond in CH3NH2 (methylamine) would be polarized as follows:

inductive effect

Examples of Electronic Effects

1. The Inductive Effect

2. Resonance

3. The Mesomeric Effect

4. Electromeric Effect

5. Hyperconjugation