Concept of hybridization
In chemistry, hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory. Hybrid orbitals are very useful in the explanation of molecular geometry and atomic bonding properties. Although sometimes taught together with the valence shell electron-pair repulsion theory, valence bond and hybridisation are in fact not related to the VSEPR model.
Types of hybridization
|Type Of Hybridization||Shape||Number Of Orbitals Participating In Hybridization|
|sp||Linear||2(1s + 1p)|
|sp2||Planar trigonal||3(1s + 2p)|
|sp3||Tetrahedral||4 (1s + 3p)|
• This kind of hybridization involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital and one ‘p’ orbital of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp hybridization.
• Mixture of s and p orbital and the formed sp orbital is maintained at 1800.
• This kind of hybridization involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital’s of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp2
• Mixture of s and p orbital formed in trigonal symmetry and is maintained at 1200.
Carbon atoms naturally have electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p2. The four outermost electrons, i.e. those in the 2s and 2p sublevels are available to form chemical bonds with other atoms. The 2s orbital is capable of holding up to two electrons, and there are three 2p orbitals, each capable of holding up to two electrons, which means the 2p orbitals can hold up to six electrons.