Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life.

Air disinfectants are typically chemical substances capable of disinfecting microorganisms suspended in the air.

Alcohols, usually ethanol or isopropanol, are sometimes used as a disinfectant, but more often as an antiseptic.

Oxidizing agents act by oxidizing the cell membrane of microorganisms, which results in a loss of structure and leads to cell lysis and death.

Consideration when select a disinfectant

There are following considerations we should evaluate when selecting disinfectant to meet the requiremnt:

1. Effectiveness

2. Kill Time

3. Safety

4. Ease of Use

Examples of chemical disinfectants

1. Alcohol

2. Chlorine and chlorine compounds

3. Formaldehyde

4. Glutaraldehyde

5. Hydrogen peroxide

6. Iodophors

7. Ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA)

8. Peracetic acid

9. Peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, etc,,

Methods of disinfection

There is generally two methods of disinfection are used:

1. Chemical and

2. Physical.

Levels of disinfection

1. High-level

2. Intermediate-level


The high-level disinfection (HLD) process kills all vegetative microorganisms, mycobacteria, lipid and nonlipid viruses, fungal spores, and some bacterial spores.